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Estuarine fish and turtles as intermediate and paratenic hosts of Gnathostoma binucleatum in Nayarit, Mexico

Alvarez Guerrero, Cesar, Alba-Hurtado, Fernando
Parasitology research 2007 v.102 no.1 pp. 117-122
Chanos chanos, DNA, Gnathostoma, Mugil curema, Pomadasys, Trachemys scripta, dogs, estuarine fish, larvae, morphometry, paratenic hosts, public health, scanning electron microscopy, turtles, Mexico
Human gnathostomosis is a severe public health problem in the State of Nayarit, Mexico. Between 1995 and 2005, the registration of human cases numbered 6,328, which makes it one of the largest focal points of the disease in the country. The present study determined the presence of natural hosts of Gnathostoma binucleatum larvae at the Laguna de Agua Brava in Nayarit, Mexico. A total of 5,450 fish and 247 turtles were sampled. Muscular tissue was ground and observed against the light using a 100-W lamp to identify advanced third-stage larvae. The estuarine species Cathorops fuerthii, Pomadasys macracanthus, Mugil curema, and Dormitator latifrons were found positive for presence of larvae, and annual prevalence was 4.8, 1.83, 2.16, and 4.0%, respectively. The species Oreochromys aureus and Chanos chanos were negative. The species of estuarine turtles Kinosternum integrum and Trachemys scripta were positive with annual prevalence of 79.1 and 52.5%, respectively. The criteria of identification of the Gnathostoma species were: mean number of nuclei in intestinal larval cells (2.3), larval morphometry with optic microscopy, larval morphometry with scanning electron microscopy, and number and sequence of ribosomal deoxyribonucleic acid of adult parasites obtained from experimental infection in dogs. The estuarine fish Pomadasys macracanthus and Mugil curema are reported as intermediate hosts for the first time and likewise the estuarine turtle Kinosternon integrum as a paratenic host.