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Renal shear wave elastography and urinary procollagen type III amino-terminal propeptide (uPIIINP) in feline chronic kidney disease

Thanaboonnipat, Chutimon, Sutayatram, Saikaew, Buranakarl, Chollada, Choisunirachon, Nan
BMC veterinary research 2019 v.15 no.1 pp. 54
biomarkers, biopsy, blood, cats, chromium, cortex, creatinine, elasticity imaging techniques, fibrosis, image analysis, kidney diseases, modulus of elasticity, osmolality, renal function, specific gravity, urea nitrogen, urine
BACKGROUND: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is one of the most common diseases occurring in cats. It is characterized by renal fibrosis, which is strongly correlated with impairment of renal function. Since renal biopsy is not performed routinely in clinical practice, the non-invasive method of ultrasonographic shear-wave elastography (SWE) was used to determine renal parenchymal stiffness. Currently, urinary procollagen type III amino-terminal propeptide (uPIIINP) is a renal fibrosis biomarker in humans. Moreover, PIIINP is increasingly applied for identification of fibrosis in various organs in animals. RESULTS: The Young’s modulus (E) value on SWE, uPIIINP, and renal function were evaluated in 23 CKD cats and 25 healthy cats (HC). The renal cortical E values were significantly higher than those of the renal medulla in both groups (P < 0.001). The E values of the renal cortex and medulla were significantly higher in CKD cats than in HC (P < 0.001 and P < 0.01, respectively). The E values, especially of the cortex, showed a significant positive correlation with concentrations of plasma creatinine (P < 0.001), blood urea nitrogen (P < 0.05), while they had a negative correlation with urine specific gravity (P < 0.001) and urine osmolality per plasma osmolality ratio (P < 0.01). The uPIIINP to creatinine ratios (uPIIINP/Cr) were significantly higher in CKD cats than in HC (P < 0.01) and were highly correlated with renal cortical E values (P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: SWE might be an additively useful and non-invasive diagnostic imaging tool to evaluate renal parenchymal stiffness, which correlates with renal functional impairment in CKD cats. Moreover, the uPIIINP/Cr might be a promissing biomarker for adjunctive assessing the renal fibrosis in feline CKD.