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Self-assembled nanovehicle-mediated co-encapsulation of inactivated EV71 virus and CpG oligonucleotides elicits potent anti-EV71 humoral and cellular immune protective responses

Liang, Hao, Xiao, Xiangqian, Zhang, Xiaofei, Hu, Qin, Yang, Yishu, Cen, Shan, Deng, Xiongwei, Sheng, Wang
Biochemical and biophysical research communications 2019
Enterovirus A, beta-glucans, cell-mediated immunity, encapsulation, immune response, inactivated vaccines, interferon-alpha, interferon-gamma, nanoparticles, neutralizing antibodies, oligodeoxyribonucleotides, sulfates, vaccine adjuvants, virion, viruses
Inactivated vaccines are widely used for prevention of viral disease. Both humoral and cellular immune responses have been shown to play important roles in the control and clearance of virus infections. CpG motif containing oligodeoxynucleotides (ODN) have recently gained considerable interest and been used as vaccine adjuvant due to their potent abilities to modulate host immune response. In this study, CpG-ODN adjuvant and inactivated viral particles of enterovirus 71 (EV71) were co-encapsulated into nanoparticles (NP) generated by using protamine sulfate (PS) and carboxymethyl β-glucan (CMG) through a self-assembly approach. The administration of EV71 nanovaccine elicited not only specific anti-EV71 neutralizing antibody response, but also cellular immune response characterized by strong productions of IFN-α and IFN-γ. The results suggest that CMG/PS-based nanovehicles hold a great potential to be a novel platform for nanovaccine development against viral disease.