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Bio-interactions and risks of engineered nanoparticles
- Prajitha, N., Athira, S.S., Mohanan, P.V.
- Environmental research 2019 v.172 pp. 98-108
- air, algae, automobiles, bacteria, breathing, developmental stages, ecosystems, fabrics, fish, humans, industry, ingestion, irradiation, livelihood, nanoparticles, physicochemical properties, reproduction, risk, soil, sunscreens, topical application, toxicity
- Nano technological research offered uncountable opportunities for engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) in the field of biomedical, pharmaceutical, agricultural, cosmetics, textiles, automobiles and electronic industry. Large scale commercial production and use of nanoparticles with smaller size and characteristic physico-chemical properties enhance the possibility of amenable toxicity to the environment. Primary important species of the ecosystem like bacteria, algae, fishes and plants are at high risk with nanoparticle (NP) toxicity. ENP distributed in air, water and soil can directly affect the livelihood or even the existence of smaller organisms. In day-today life, human beings are getting exposed to thousands of NPs via dermal contact, inhalation or ingestion. Topical application of sunscreens and cosmetics containing ENPs has the potential to induce photo toxicity under ultra violet irradiation. ENP intentionally or non-intentionally enter into the body will affect the entire organ system and execute their toxicity even in reproduction and fetal developmental stages. Unfortunately the existing researches to evaluate the in vivo and in vitro toxic effects of ENPs are inefficient to give the exact nature and depth of toxicity. Hence an effort was made to discuss on the characteristics, classification, synthesis, applications and toxic potentials of various classes of commercially relevant ENPs along with a detailed review on currently available literatures.