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Determinants of airborne benzene evaporating from fresh crude oils released into seawater

Gjesteland, Ingrid, Hollund, Bjørg Eli, Kirkeleit, Jorunn, Daling, Per S., Sørheim, Kristin Rist, Bråtveit, Magne
Marine pollution bulletin 2019 v.140 pp. 395-402
air, benzene, condensates, ethylbenzene, evaporation, hexane, models, naphthalene, oils, petroleum, physicochemical properties, pour point, seawater, temperature, toluene, variance, volatile organic compounds, water pollution, xylene
Benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylenes, naphthalene and n-hexane evaporating from a thin oil film was measured for 30 min in a small-scale test system at 2 and 13 °C and the impact of physicochemical properties on airborne benzene with time after bulk oil release was studied. Linear mixed-effects models for airborne benzene in three time periods; first 5, first 15 and last 15 min of sampling, indicated that benzene content in fresh oil, oil group (condensate/light crude oil) and pour point were significant determinants explaining 63–73% of the total variance in the outcome variables. Oils with a high pour point evaporated considerably slower than oils with a low pour point. The mean air concentration of total volatile organic compounds was significatly higher at 13 °C (735 ppm) compared to 2 °C (386 ppm) immediately after release of oil, but at both temperatures the concentration rapidly declined.