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Natural barrigenol–like triterpenoids: A comprehensive review of their contributions to medicinal chemistry
- Zhang, Xinxin, Zhang, Song, Yang, Yiren, Wang, Da, Gao, Huiyuan
- Phytochemistry 2019 v.161 pp. 41-74
- Aesculus hippocastanum, Alzheimer disease, Xanthoceras sorbifolium, bioavailability, carbohydrates, mechanism of action, moieties, pharmacokinetics, triterpenoids
- Barrigenol-like triterpenoids (BATs), which contain an unusual oleanane substituted by many hydroxyl groups as the skeleton, are subdivided into five subtypes: barrigenol A1, barrigenol A2, barrigenol R1, barringtogenol C, and 16-deoxybarringtogenol C. The variations in acyl derivatives, hydroxyl groups, and carbohydrate chains in their structures have enhanced the diversity of BATs. Moreover, the stable polyhydroxy-replaced pentacyclic skeleton provides an ideal platform for structural modifications. To date, more than 500 BAT derivatives have been isolated from plants. Synchronously, BATs possess anti-tumour, anti-Alzheimer's disease, anti-inflammatory, anti-microbial, anti-obesity and anti-allergic activities by regulating numerous cellular molecules. Some BAT derivatives, such as escin obtained from Aesculus hippocastanum L. and xanthoceraside isolated from Xanthoceras sorbifolia Bunge, have been used to treat encephaloedema or inflammatory diseases. This review aims to provide comprehensive information about the chemistry, sources, bioavailability, and anti-tumour effects of BATs, with a particular emphasis on the molecular mechanisms of action. The pharmacokinetics and clinical progress are also concerned. More than 300 structures identified over past 25 years are summarized here (249 compounds) and in the supplementary information (114 compounds). Accordingly, the pharmaceutical activity of barrigenol triterpenoids suggests that some compounds should be developed as promising anti-tumour or anti- Alzheimer's disease agents in future.