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An alternative sequential extraction scheme for the determination of trace elements in ferrihydrite rich sediments

Leermakers, Martine, Mbachou, Bao Elvis, Husson, Angelique, Lagneau, Vincent, Descostes, Michael
Talanta 2019 v.199 pp. 80-88
aluminum, ammonium acetate, arsenic, buffers, cadmium, cesium, chromium, citrates, cobalt, copper, dithionite, ferrihydrite, fractionation, hydrofluoric acid, hydrogen peroxide, hydroxylamine, iron, lead, manganese, microwave treatment, mining, molybdenum, nitric acid, organic matter, oxalic acid, pH, sediments, sodium acetate, sodium pyrophosphate, strontium, uranium, zinc
Sequential extraction schemes (SES) were evaluated to investigate the fractionation of Al, As, Cd, Cs, Cr, Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, Pb, Sr, U and Zn between the different mineral phases in iron oxide rich deposits of a former uranium mining site. Ineffective dissolution of iron oxide was observed when applying the BCR sequential extraction scheme. The hydroxylamine hydrochloride reagent in nitric acid could not effectively dissolve the iron oxide phase, even after several consecutive extractions. The use of sodium pyrophosphate to remove organic matter prior to the dissolution of the iron oxides and the use of oxalic acid buffer and dithionite citrate buffer to dissolve the amorphous and crystalline iron oxides was evaluated. An alternative six step SES for iron oxide rich sediments is proposed consisting of F1) Exchangeable-Carbonate fraction using acetic acid/ sodium acetate buffer (pH 5) F2) Labile organic fraction using sodium pyrophosphate, F3) Easily reducible amorphous oxides using an oxalic acid buffer, F4) Organic and Sulfide fraction using hydrogen peroxide, followed by ammonium acetate extraction, F5) Poorly reducible crystalline oxides using sodium dithionite and F6) residual fraction using a microwave digestion step with hydrofluoric acid, nitric acid and hydrochloride acid mixture. A good correspondence between the sum of the sequential extraction steps and total metal concentrations was found. Both the BCR method and new method were also applied to the CRM BCR 701 providing indicative values for non-certified elements with the BCR method and indicative values for the method presented.