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Co-exposure of graphene oxide with trace elements: Effects on acute ecotoxicity and routine metabolism in Palaemon pandaliformis (shrimp)

Batista de Melo, Camila, Côa, Francine, Alves, Oswaldo Luiz, Martinez, Diego Stéfani T., Barbieri, Edison
Chemosphere 2019 v.223 pp. 157-164
Palaemon, acute toxicity, ammonia, aquatic ecosystems, aquatic environment, cadmium, ecotoxicology, excretion, graphene oxide, lethal concentration 50, metabolism, models, nanomaterials, oxygen consumption, pollutants, remediation, shrimp, zinc
Graphene oxide (GO) has been evaluated for application in environmental remediation and pollution control strategies. However, the side effects caused by the interactions of GO with classical pollutants in aquatic environments are still largely unknown. In this work, the ecotoxicological effects of GO, cadmium, zinc and the interactions between GO and these trace elements (co-exposure) were evaluated through acute toxicity tests and routine metabolism (i.e., oxygen consumption and ammonia excretion) in Palaemon pandaliformis (shrimp). After 96 h of exposure, GO did not present acute ecotoxicity at concentrations up to 5.0 mg L−1. However, the association of GO with Cd or Zn increased the toxicity of these trace elements as demonstrated by the decrease in LC50 values. The 96 h LC50 of Cd associated with GO was 1.7 times less than the 96 h LC50 of Cd alone. Similarly, the 96 h LC50 of Zn associated with GO was 1.8 times less than the 96 h LC50 of Zn alone. Additionally, the co-exposure of GO with trace elements impaired the routine metabolism of P. pandaliformis. Finally, the GO potentiated the ecotoxicological effects of Cd and Zn in the shrimp model. Future research on this emerging nanomaterial should focus on its use and disposal in aquatic ecosystems.