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Glycemic control in Chinese steamed bread: Strategies and opportunities
- Zhu, Fan
- Trends in food science & technology 2019
- antioxidant activity, chronic diseases, diabetes, functional foods, glycation, glycemic control, glycemic index, ingredients, mechanism of action, nutritive value, obesity, sensory properties, staple foods, wheat flour
- Chinese steamed bread (CSB) is a staple food eaten by Chinese populations. CSB is mostly made from refined wheat flour and has a high glycemic index (GI). The demand for low and moderate GI CSB has kept increasing. This demand is largely driven by the increased occurrences of various chronic diseases such as diabetes and obesity in China.This review firstly summarizes the studies on the GI of CSB. Then strategies such as using diverse functional ingredients to produce CSB with reduced GI are presented. Related mechanisms of action responsible for the GI reduction are discussed. How the added ingredients may affect the eating quality of the CSB is also summarized. Differences in CSB and Western baked breads in relation to GI reduction are discussed. Finally, research opportunities on how to produce low/moderate GI CSB with good eating properties are suggested.Many functional food ingredients from different sources have been used to reduce the GI of CSB. Suitable processing conditions also have the potential to reduce the GI. Functional ingredients can also be used to improve other related nutritional properties such as antioxidant activity and inhibition on formation of advanced glycation products. While achieving the nutritional benefits of reducing GI, textural and sensory quality of the CSB should be maintained or improved. A comprehensive approach should be used to design CSB with targeted glycemic property without compromising the eating quality.