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Grape seed proanthocyanidin inhibits monocrotaline-induced pulmonary arterial hypertension via attenuating inflammation: in vivo and in vitro studies

Chen, Fangzheng, Wang, Heng, Zhao, Jie, Yan, Junjie, Meng, Hanyan, Zhan, Huilu, Chen, Luowei, Yuan, Linbo
The Journal of nutritional biochemistry 2019 v.67 pp. 72-77
IKappaB kinase, arterioles, blood circulation, calcium, endothelial nitric oxide synthase, gene expression regulation, grape seeds, hypertension, in vitro studies, inflammation, interleukin-1beta, interleukin-6, lungs, monocrotaline, nitric oxide, proanthocyanidins, pulmonary artery, rats, smooth muscle, transcription factor NF-kappa B, tumor necrosis factor-alpha
Inflammation in pulmonary arterioles initiates and maintains pathological processes in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), and inhibition of it attenuates PAH development. Grape seed proanthocyanidin (GSP) is believed to be effective in protecting vascular system via inhibiting inflammation, while its effect on pulmonary circulation remains inconclusive. In this study, we made observations in monocrotaline (MCT)-induced PAH rats and found decreases in mean pulmonary arterial pressure, pulmonary vessel resistance, right ventricular hypertrophy index, percentage of medial wall thickness, percentage of medial wall area, and lung weight of wet and dry tissue ratio after GSP administration in vivo. At the cellular and molecular levels, we also found several effects of GSP on MCT-induced PAH: (a) endothelial nitric oxide synthase expression in lung tissue and plasma NO level were increased; (b) Ca2+ level in pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cell (PASMC) was decreased; (c) transcription of inflammatory factors such as myeloperoxidase, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) was down-regulated in lung tissue; (d) nuclear factor-κB pathway was inhibited as IκBα was less phosphorylated; (e) TNFα-induced PASMC overproliferation could be inhibited. These results indicated a possible mechanism of GSP reversing pulmonary vascular remodeling and vascular contraction by inhibiting inflammation, and it may be useful for preventing PAH development.