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Ethanolamine-assisted low-temperature crystallization of hydroxide nanoparticle ink into transparent and conductive ITO layers
- Liu, Yujing, Moser, Thierry, Andres, Christian, Gorjan, Lovro, Remhof, Arndt, Clemens, Frank, Graule, Thomas, Tiwari, Ayodhya N., Romanyuk, Yaroslav E.
- Journal of materials chemistry A 2019 v.7 no.7 pp. 3083-3089
- absorption, crystallization, ethanolamine, indium, moieties, nanoparticles, tin, transmittance, wavelengths
- Low-temperature crystallization is desired for achieving solution processable transparent conductive oxide (TCO) layers. Here we demonstrate a low-temperature crystallization of tin doped indium oxide (ITO) layers by taking preformed indium-tin hydroxide nanoparticles as the precursor and applying surface modification with ethanolamine on the as-prepared layers. Surface modification with ethanolamine is shown to speed up the dehydration of the hydroxide precursor, resulting in earlier onset of crystallization into the cubic bixbyite ITO phase with a larger crystal size. The ethanolamine-modified ITO nanoparticle layer possesses fewer surface hydroxyl groups as compared to the non-treated layer, corresponding to a higher charge carrier concentration, as manifested in a near IR absorption. The nanoparticle ITO layer shows dc conductivity two times higher than that of the non-treated layer. A conductivity of 43 S cm⁻¹ combined with a high optical transmittance of above 90% in the 380–1100 nm wavelength range is obtained for the nanoparticle ITO layer annealed at 300 °C.