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Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Buffalo Milk δ-Valerobetaine
- D’Onofrio, Nunzia, Balestrieri, Anna, Neglia, Gianluca, Monaco, Alessandra, Tatullo, Marco, Casale, Rosario, Limone, Antonio, Balestrieri, Maria Luisa, Campanile, Giuseppe
- Journal of agricultural and food chemistry 2019 v.67 no.6 pp. 1702-1710
- anti-inflammatory activity, betaine, buffalo milk, cytokines, cytotoxicity, health promotion, inflammation, lipid peroxidation, metabolites, milk, oxidative stress, reactive oxygen species, rumen, ruminants, transcription factor NF-kappa B, vegetables
- δ-Valerobetaine (δVB), a constitutive metabolite of ruminant milk, is produced in the rumen from free dietary Nᵋ- trimethyllysine occurring ubiquitously in vegetable kingdom. The biological role of δVB is poorly known. Here, the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory potential of buffalo milk δVB was tested in vitro during high-glucose (HG)-induced endothelial damage. Results indicated that δVB (0.5 mM) ameliorated the HG cytotoxicity (0.57 ± 0.02 vs 0.41 ± 0.018 O.D. (P < 0.01). Interestingly, buffalo milk extracts enriched with δVB showed improved significant efficacy in decreasing reactive oxygen species, lipid peroxidation, and cytokine release during HG treatment compared to milk extracts alone (P < 0.05). It is noteworthy that δVB reduced the HG-activated inflammatory signal by modulating SIRT1 (0.96 ± 0.05 vs 0.85 ± 0.04 AU), SIRT6 (0.82 ± 0.04 vs 0.61 ± 0.03 AU), and NF-κB (0.85 ± 0.03 vs 1.23 ± 0.03 AU) (P < 0.05). On the whole, our data show the first evidence of δVB efficacy in reducing endothelial oxidative stress and inflammation, suggesting a potential role of this betaine as a novel dietary compound with health-promoting properties.