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Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Buffalo Milk δ-Valerobetaine

D’Onofrio, Nunzia, Balestrieri, Anna, Neglia, Gianluca, Monaco, Alessandra, Tatullo, Marco, Casale, Rosario, Limone, Antonio, Balestrieri, Maria Luisa, Campanile, Giuseppe
Journal of agricultural and food chemistry 2019 v.67 no.6 pp. 1702-1710
anti-inflammatory activity, betaine, buffalo milk, cytokines, cytotoxicity, health promotion, inflammation, lipid peroxidation, metabolites, milk, oxidative stress, reactive oxygen species, rumen, ruminants, transcription factor NF-kappa B, vegetables
δ-Valerobetaine (δVB), a constitutive metabolite of ruminant milk, is produced in the rumen from free dietary Nᵋ- trimethyllysine occurring ubiquitously in vegetable kingdom. The biological role of δVB is poorly known. Here, the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory potential of buffalo milk δVB was tested in vitro during high-glucose (HG)-induced endothelial damage. Results indicated that δVB (0.5 mM) ameliorated the HG cytotoxicity (0.57 ± 0.02 vs 0.41 ± 0.018 O.D. (P < 0.01). Interestingly, buffalo milk extracts enriched with δVB showed improved significant efficacy in decreasing reactive oxygen species, lipid peroxidation, and cytokine release during HG treatment compared to milk extracts alone (P < 0.05). It is noteworthy that δVB reduced the HG-activated inflammatory signal by modulating SIRT1 (0.96 ± 0.05 vs 0.85 ± 0.04 AU), SIRT6 (0.82 ± 0.04 vs 0.61 ± 0.03 AU), and NF-κB (0.85 ± 0.03 vs 1.23 ± 0.03 AU) (P < 0.05). On the whole, our data show the first evidence of δVB efficacy in reducing endothelial oxidative stress and inflammation, suggesting a potential role of this betaine as a novel dietary compound with health-promoting properties.