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Towards a metalloprotease-DNA vaccine against piscine cryptobiosis caused by Cryptobia salmositica

Tan, Chung-Wei, Jesudhasan, Palmy, Woo, Patrick T. K.
Parasitology research 2008 v.102 no.2 pp. 265-275
Cryptobia, Oncorhynchus mykiss, Salmo salar, blood, cysteine proteinases, fish, genes, hematocrit, metalloproteinases, parasitemia, pathogens, plasmid vectors, plasmids, recombinant vaccines
Cysteine protease is a metabolic enzyme, whereas metalloprotease is the virulent factor in cryptobiosis caused by Cryptobia salmositica. Recombinant DNA vaccines were produced with the insertion of either the metalloprotease or cysteine protease gene of C. salmositica into plasmid vectors (pEGFP-N). As expected, fishes (Oncorhynchus mykiss and Salmo salar) injected intramuscularly with the metalloprotease-DNA (MP-DNA) vaccine (50 μg/fish) were consistently more anemic (lower packed cell volume, PCV) than controls (injected only with the plasmid) at 3–5 weeks post-inoculation. Also, there were no difference in PCV between fish injected with the cysteine-DNA plasmids and the controls. In addition, agglutinating antibodies against Cryptobia were detected only in the blood of MP-DNA-vaccinated fish at 5–7 weeks post-vaccination and not in cysteine-DNA plasmids and the control groups. MP-DNA-vaccinated fish when challenged with the pathogen had consistently lower parasitemia, delayed peak parasitemia, and faster recovery compared with the controls. All fish vaccinated with attenuated strain were protected when challenged with the pathogen; this positive control group confirmed that the two vaccines operate through different mechanisms.