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Novel insights into the evolution of the caveolin superfamily and mechanisms of antiapoptotic effects and cell proliferation in lamprey

Teng, Hongming, Wang, Dayu, Lu, Jiali, Zhou, Ying, Pang, Yue, Li, Qingwei
Developmental and comparative immunology 2019
Lethenteron camtschaticum, Staphylococcus aureus, Vibrio anguillarum, adenosine triphosphate, adults, apoptosis, carcinogenesis, caspase-3, caspase-9, cell membranes, cell proliferation, cholesterol, endocytosis, evolution, genes, humans, immunohistochemistry, inflammation, intestines, leukocytes, lipopolysaccharides, messenger RNA, mitochondria, neoplasms, oncogene proteins, polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid, protein synthesis, signal transduction, tissues, transport proteins
Caveolin-1 is the main structural and functional component of caveolin, and it is involved in the regulation of cholesterol transport, endocytosis, and signal transduction. Moreover, changes in caveolin-1 play an important role in tumorigenesis and inflammatory processes. Previous studies have demonstrated that human caveolin-1 is mainly located in the cell membrane and exhibits cell type- and stage-dependent functional differences during cancer development and inflammatory responses. However, the role of Lamprey-caveolin-like (L-caveolin-like) in lamprey remained unknown. Here, we demonstrated that L-caveolin-like performs anti-inflammation and oncogenic functions and the function of caveolin-1 diverged during vertebrate evolution. Moreover, the results reveal the mechanism underlying the antiapoptotic effects of L-caveolin-like. An L-caveolin-like gene from Lampetra japonica (L. japonica) was identified and characterized. L-Caveolin-like was primarily distributed in the leukocytes, intestines and supraneural bodies (Sp-bodies) immune organs as indicated by QPCR and immunohistochemistry assays. The mRNA and protein expression levels of L-caveolin exhibited consistent increases in expression at 2 and 72 h in adult tissues after exposure to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and in leukocytes stimulated by Vibrio anguillarum (V. anguillarum), Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), and Poly I:C. Furthermore, the overexpression of pEGFP-N1-L-caveolin-like was associated with a distinct localization in mitochondria, with decreased cytochrome C (Cyt C) and mitochondrial Cyt C oxidase subunit I (CO I) expression. In addition, increased cellular ATP levels suggested that this protein prevented mitochondrial damage. The overexpression of pEGFP-N1-L-caveolin-like led to the altered expression of factors related to apoptosis, such as decreased Caspase-9, Caspase-3, p53, and Bax expression and increased Bcl-2 expression. In addition, the overexpression of pEGFP-N1-L-caveolin-like promoted cell proliferation associated with upregulated EGF, bFGF, and PDGFB expression. Together, these findings indicated that the L-caveolin-like protein from L. japonica induced the activation of antiapoptotic effects via the mitochondrial Cyt C-mediated Caspase-3 signaling pathway. Our analysis further suggests that L-caveolin-like is an oncogene protein product and anti-inflammatory molecule from lamprey that evolved early in vertebrate evolution.