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Relationship between perfluorooctanoate and perfluorooctane sulfonate blood concentrations in the general population and routine drinking water exposure
- Zhang, Shiyi, Kang, Qiyue, Peng, Hui, Ding, Mengyu, Zhao, Fanrong, Zhou, Yuyin, Dong, Zhaomin, Zhang, Haifeng, Yang, Min, Tao, Shu, Hu, Jianying
- Environment international 2019 v.126 pp. 54-60
- blood, blood sampling, cities, drinking water, geometry, humans, models, perfluorooctane sulfonic acid, perfluorooctanoic acid, China
- In regions with heavily contaminated drinking water, a significant contribution of drinking water to overall human perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) exposure has been well documented. However, the relationship of PFOA/PFOS blood concentrations in the general population to routine drinking water exposure is not well characterized. This study determined the PFOA and PFOS concentrations in 166 drinking water samples across 28 cities in China. For 13 of the studied cities, PFOA and PFOS concentrations were analyzed in 847 human blood samples which were collected in parallel with the drinking water samples. The geometric mean PFOA and PFOS concentrations in drinking water were 2.5 ± 6.2 ng/L and 0.7 ± 11.7 ng/L, and population-weighted geometric mean blood concentrations were 2.1 ± 1.2 ng/mL and 2.6 ± 1.3 ng/mL, respectively. We found a significant correlation between the PFOA concentration in drinking water and blood (r = 0.87, n = 13, p < 0.001). The total daily intake of PFOA (0.24–2.13 ng/kg/day) and PFOS (0.19–1.87 ng/kg/day) were back-calculated from the blood concentrations with a one-compartment toxicokinetic model. We estimated relative source contributions (RSCs) of drinking water to total daily intake in China of 23 ± 3% for PFOA and 12.7 ± 5.8% for PFOS. Using the mean RSCs, we derived the health advisory values of 85 ng/L for PFOA and 47 ng/L for PFOS in China.