Jump to Main Content
Innate immune response profiles in pigs injected with vaccine adjuvants polydi(sodium carboxylatoethylphenoxy)phosphazene (PCEP) and Emulsigen
- Magiri, Royford, Lai, Ken, Huang, Yanyun, Mutwiri, George, Wilson, Heather L.
- Veterinary immunology and immunopathology 2019 v.209 pp. 7-16
- B-lymphocytes, antigens, immune response, immunogenicity, injection site, innate immunity, interleukin-12, interleukin-13, interleukin-1beta, interleukin-6, lymph nodes, macrophages, mechanism of action, mice, pathogens, piglets, sodium, vaccine adjuvants, vaccines
- Vaccines are formulated with adjuvants to enhance or direct antigen-specific immune responses against pathogens. However, the mechanisms of action (MOA) of adjuvants are not well understood and are under-investigated in large animal species. We have previously reported that injection of mice induced innate immune responses as indicated by increased cell recruitment and cytokine production at the site of injection with polyphosphazene (PCEP) adjuvant. In the present study, we evaluated whether PCEP induced similar innate immune responses in pigs. Piglets were injected with either PCEP or Emulsigen intradermally (I.D.) and the local cellular infiltration and cytokine production were evaluated at the site of injection and the draining lymph nodes. PCEP induced infiltration of macrophages, T and B cells, leucocytes and necrotic debris at the site of injection as well as PCEP-induced leucocyte infiltration in the draining lymph nodes. Emulsigen induced diffuse infiltration of leucocytes, macrophages, and lymphocytes at the site of injection as well as at the draining lymph nodes. PCEP induced significant production of interleukin IL-1β, and IL-13 at the site of injection and IL-1β, and IL-6 at the draining lymph nodes. Emulsigen promoted the production of IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-12 at the site of injection but not in the draining lymph nodes. No cytokines were detected in blood after injection of either adjuvant. Together, our data indicate that in pigs, the adjuvants PCEP and Emulsigen stimulate early innate immune responses at the injection site by creating an immunocompetent environment that may contribute to increased immunogenicity of the co-administered antigens.