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Health risk assessment of acrylamide in bread in Iran using LC-MS/MS
- Eslamizad, Samira, Kobarfard, Farzad, Tsitsimpikou, Christina, Tsatsakis, Aristides, Tabib, Kimia, Yazdanpanah, Hassan
- Food and chemical toxicology 2019 v.126 pp. 162-168
- United States Environmental Protection Agency, acrylamides, adults, average daily intake, breads, carcinogens, children, health effects assessments, ingestion, liquid chromatography, mutagens, neoplasms, risk, tandem mass spectrometry, toxicology, Iran
- Acrylamide is a chemical, often present in bread, legally classified as carcinogen, mutagen and reproductive toxicant. Since bread is consumed both world-wide and in Iran, determination of acrylamide in different types of breads is of high interest. In the present study, acrylamide was monitored in 56 Sangak and 30 industrial bread samples collected from Tehran and Shiraz, using LC-MS/MS (LOQ = 1 ng/g). In addition, the noncarcinogenic risk (target hazard quotient–THQ) and carcinogenic risk (incremental lifetime cancer risk–ILCR) due to ingestion of acrylamide through bread consumption in children and adults were assessed. Acrylamide was detected in more than 90% of the samples tested. The average daily intake of acrylamide in Iran based on exclusive consumption of Sangak bread, was estimated at 145 ng/kg bw/day. Based on the THQ for bread acrylamide in adults and children, the decreasing risk order was: Shiraz semi-industrial Sangak, Shiraz traditional Sangak, Tehran traditional Sangak, Tehran industrial bread. The ILCR of bread acrylamide calculated for adults and children was higher than the permissible lifetime carcinogenic risk value established by USEPA (1.00E-5). Results show that bread is a major source of acrylamide intake by people in Iran and all consumers regardless of age could be at elevated carcinogenic risk.