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Biochemical and gene expression responses of two Iranian grape cultivars to foliar application of methyl jasmonate under boron toxicity conditions

Sarabandi, Melina, Farokhzad, Alireza, Mandoulakani, Babak Abdollahi, Ghasemzadeh, Raheleh
Scientia horticulturae 2019 v.249 pp. 355-363
antioxidant activity, ascorbate peroxidase, boron, catalase, cultivars, environmental factors, enzyme activity, flavonoids, foliar application, gene expression, genes, grapes, growth and development, hydrogen peroxide, jasmonic acid, leaves, malondialdehyde, methyl jasmonate, phenolic compounds, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase, proline, protein content, semiarid zones, soil, superoxide dismutase, toxicity
Boron (B) toxicity is a serious problem for the growth and development of plants in arid and semiarid areas. Jasmonates enhance the capacity of plants to grow under stressful environmental conditions. The objective of this experiment was to study the effect of foliar application of methyl jasmonate MeJA (at 0 and 100 μM) on biochemical and gene expression responses of two Iranian grape cultivars (‘Bidaneh Ghermez’ and ‘Rashe’) under B toxicity conditions (0, 10 and 20 mg B /kg soil). With increase in B levels of the soil, the leaf B content, malondialdehyde (MDA), hydrogen peroxide, total phenolics, total flavonoids, total protein and proline content, as well as total antioxidant activity and the activity of antioxidant enzymes (except for the ascorbate peroxidase) were significantly (P ≤ 0.01) increased. Under B toxicity conditions, foliar application of MeJA at 100 μM enhanced the activity of catalase, superoxide dismutase and phenylalanine ammonia lyase enzymes, and decreased MDA and proline content in the leaves of both cultivars. In addition, MeJA significantly (P ≤ 0.01) influenced the accumulation of B in grape leaves. B accumulation in the leaves of Rashe cultivar was lower than that of ‘Bidaneh Ghermez’. The expression of VvPAL and VvBOR1 genes in all treatments were lower than those of controls. MeJA enhanced the expression of VvPAL under B toxicity conditions while the expression of VvBOR1 gene was declined. The expression of VvBOR1 in ‘Rashe’ was significantly (P ≤ 0.01) lower than that of ‘Bidaneh Ghermez’ cultivar. According to the results, Rashe cultivar performed better as compared with Bidane Ghermez cultivar in response to increased soil B levels and MeJA treatment.