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Responses of reactive oxygen species and methylglyoxal metabolisms to magnesium-deficiency differ greatly among the roots, upper and lower leaves of Citrus sinensis

Cai, Yan-Tong, Zhang, Han, Qi, Yi-Ping, Ye, Xin, Huang, Zeng-Rong, Guo, Jiu-Xin, Chen, Li-Song, Yang, Lin-Tong
BMC plant biology 2019 v.19 no.1 pp. 76
Citrus sinensis, chlorophyll, fluorescence, gas exchange, glutathione, glutathione transferase, leaves, lipid peroxidation, magnesium, malondialdehyde, nitrates, nutrient deficiencies, nutrient solutions, plasma membrane, reactive oxygen species, roots, seedlings, sulfites, sulfur
BACKGROUND: Magnesium (Mg)-deficiency is one of the most prevalent physiological disorders causing a reduction in Citrus yield and quality. ‘Xuegan’ (Citrus sinensis) seedlings were irrigated for 16 weeks with nutrient solution containing 2 mM (Mg-sufficiency) or 0 mM (Mg-deficiency) Mg(NO₃)₂. Thereafter, we investigated the Mg-deficient effects on gas exchange and chlorophyll a fluorescence in the upper and lower leaves, and Mg, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and methylglyoxal (MG) metabolisms in the roots, lower and upper leaves. The specific objectives were to corroborate the hypothesis that the responses of ROS and MG metabolisms to Mg-deficiency were greater in the lower leaves than those in the upper leaves, and different between the leaves and roots. RESULTS: Mg level was higher in the Mg-deficient upper leaves than that in the Mg-deficient lower leaves. This might be responsible for the Mg-deficiency-induced larger alterations of all the measured parameters in the lower leaves than those in the upper leaves, but they showed similar change patterns between the Mg-deficient lower and upper leaves. Accordingly, Mg-deficiency increased greatly their differences between the lower and upper leaves. Most of parameters involved in ROS and MG metabolisms had similar variation trends and degrees between the Mg-deficient lower leaves and roots, but several parameters (namely glutathione S-transferase, sulfite reductase, ascorbate and dehydroascorbate) displayed the opposite variation trends. Obviously, differences existed in the Mg-deficiency-induced alterations of ROS and MG metabolisms between the lower leaves and roots. Although the activities of most antioxidant and sulfur metabolism-related enzymes and glyoxalase I and the level of reduced glutathione in the Mg-deficient leaves and roots and the level of ascorbate in the leaves were kept in higher levels, the levels of malonaldehyde and MG and/or electrolyte leakage were increased in the Mg-deficient lower and upper leaves and roots, especially in the Mg-deficient lower leaves and roots. CONCLUSIONS: The ROS and MG detoxification systems as a whole did not provide sufficient detoxification capacity to prevent the Mg-deficiency-induced production and accumulation of ROS and MG, thus leading to lipid peroxidation and the loss of plasma membrane integrity, especially in the lower leaves and roots.