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Salmonella enterica and extended-spectrum cephalosporin-resistant Escherichia coli recovered from Holstein dairy calves from 8 farms in New Brunswick, Canada

Awosile, Babafela, McClure, J., Sanchez, Javier, Rodriguez-Lecompte, Juan Carlos, Keefe, Greg, Heider, Luke C.
Journal of dairy science 2018 v.101 no.4 pp. 3271-3284
Escherichia coli, Holstein, Salmonella Derby, Salmonella Senftenberg, Salmonella Typhimurium, antibiotic resistance, beta-lactamase, ceftiofur, confidence interval, dairy calves, farm management, farms, feces, florfenicol, fluoroquinolones, milk, minimum inhibitory concentration, multiple drug resistance, odds ratio, polymerase chain reaction, questionnaires, resistance genes, respiratory tract diseases, risk factors, serotypes, New Brunswick
This study was carried out to determine the frequency of fecal carriage, antimicrobial susceptibility, and resistance genes in Salmonella enterica and Escherichia coli with reduced susceptibility to extended-spectrum cephalosporins (ESC) isolated from 488 dairy calves from 8 farms in New Brunswick, Canada. Both S. enterica and E. coli with reduced susceptibility to ESC were isolated using selective culture. Minimum inhibitory concentrations to a panel of antimicrobial drugs were determined for randomly selected E. coli isolates and all of the Salmonella isolates. Multiplex PCR were conducted on the selected ESC-resistant E. coli to assess the β-lactamase resistance genes (blaCTX-M, blaCMY-2, blaSHV, and blaTEM) and plasmid-mediated qnrB and qnrS resistant genes. Information on ceftiofur use and other farm management practices were collected by the use of a questionnaire to determine the risk factors for the fecal recovery of E. coli with reduced susceptibility to ESC. Salmonella enterica frequency in calves' fecal samples was 3.3%, and all were pansusceptible. Salmonella isolates belonged to 3 serovars namely Salmonella Senftenberg, Salmonella Typhimurium, and Salmonella Derby. The frequency of fecal carriage of E. coli with reduced susceptibility to ESC in calves was 81.2%. Of the selected isolates (n = 100), all were multi-drug resistant, whereas 88% were ESC resistant based on minimum inhibitory concentration testing. From the selected ESC-resistant E. coli isolates, blaTEM was detected in 84.1%, blaCMY-2 was detected in 52.2%, blaCTXM groups were detected in 30.7%, and blaSHV was detected in 1.1% of isolates. Plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance genes were identified in 7 of 9 isolates resistant to quinolones. Five isolates were positive for qnrB, whereas 2 isolates were positive for both qnrB and qnrS. Whereas neonatal calves [odds ratio (OR) = 2.42, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.87–3.12], regular ceftiofur use on the farm (OR = 3.83, 95% CI: 2.29–6.39), feeding of unpasteurized nonsalable milk (OR = 1.6, 95% CI: 1.18–2.18), and use of florfenicol (OR = 2.02, 95% CI: 1.43–2.86) were statistically associated with fecal recovery of E. coli with reduced susceptibility to ESC, use of ceftiofur for the treatment of respiratory diseases (OR = 0.57, 95% CI: 0.41–0.79) was statistically associated with decreased recovery of E. coli with reduced susceptibility to ESC. This study has provided information on the resistance genes associated with the occurrence of ESC and fluoroquinolone resistance in dairy calves within this region.