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Electrochemiluminescence Investigation of Glucose Transporter 4 Expression at Skeletal Muscle Cells Surface Based on a Graphene Hydrogel Electrode

Liu, Gen, Ma, Cheng, Jin, Bao-Kang, Chen, Zixuan, Cheng, Fa-Liang, Zhu, Jun-Jie
Analytical chemistry 2019 v.91 no.4 pp. 3021-3026
carbon quantum dots, disease diagnosis, electrochemiluminescence, electrodes, glucose transporters, graphene, hydrogels, insulin, myocytes, receptors, skeletal muscle
In situ detection of the expression level of cell-surface receptors has become a hotspot study in recent years. We propose in this manuscript a novel strategy for sensitive electrochemiluminescence (ECL) detection of glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) on human skeletal muscle cells (HSMCs). Graphene hydrogel (GH) was selected to fabricate a permeable electrode with the purpose of overcoming the steric hindrance of cells on electrode, which leads to errors in the detection of cell-surface receptors. GLUT4 was labeled with carbon dots (CDs), which generate ECL emission at the interface between GH and cells, so about half the amount of GLUT4 expressed at the cell surface could be determined, which provided an accurate GLUT4 expression quantification. The prepared cytosensor exhibited good analytical performance for HSMC cells, ranging from 500 to 1.0 × 10⁶ cells·mL–¹, with a detection limit of 200 cells·mL–¹. The average amount of GLUT4 per HSMC cell was calculated to be 1.88 × 10⁵. Furthermore, GLUT4 on HSMC surface had a 2.3-fold increase under the action of insulin. This strategy is capable of evaluating the receptors on the cell surface, which may push the application of ECL for disease diagnosis.