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Rheological measurements of composite flour containing Jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam.) flesh flour and its identification by pattern recognition methods

Sharma, H. K., Kaushal, Pragati, Singh, A. P.
Journal of food measurement & characterization 2019 v.13 no.1 pp. 404-420
Artocarpus heterophyllus, absorption, crystal structure, foaming, foaming properties, jackfruits, oils, particle size, pasting properties, pigeon peas, principal component analysis, rice, rice flour, scanning electron microscopy, starch granules, viscosity, water binding capacity
Jackfruit flour was significantly (p < .05) different from other flours due to its highest water absorption capacity (WAC) (1.57 g/g), particle size (PS) (384.984 µm) and lowest loss factor (tanδ), foaming stability (FS) (32.6%). The different blends consisting of jackfruit flour at 0.5%, 1%, 5%, 10%, 20%, 30% levels with equal proportions of rice and pigeonpea flour were prepared. The higher the substitution of jackfruit flour in blends, PS and WAC were increased whereas peak viscosity, trough viscosity, relative crystallinity, oil absorption capacity, foaming properties were decreased. A mixture of spherical, polyhedral and irregular shaped starch granules with less smooth granule surfaces can be observed using scanning electron microscopy. Micrographs of blends showed swollen and slightly elongated starch granules with distorted structure. Pattern recognition methods such as principal component analysis and linear discriminate analysis were performed to classify jackfruit flesh flour, rice flour and pigeonpea flour based blends on the basis of rheological, functional, microstructural and pasting properties. The variables like setback viscosity, FS, tanδ, final viscosity and WAC exhibited higher discrimination power.