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High-resolution DNA methylome reveals that demethylation enhances adaptability to continuous cropping comprehensive stress in soybean
- Liang, Xilong, Hou, Xue, Li, Jianying, Han, Yiqiang, Zhang, Yuxian, Feng, Naijie, Du, Jidao, Zhang, Wenhui, Zheng, Dianfeng, Fang, Shumei
- BMC plant biology 2019 v.19 no.1 pp. 79
- DNA, DNA demethylation, DNA methylation, amino acids, bisulfites, breeding, continuous cropping, crop yield, cultivars, fatty acids, gene ontology, genes, genomics, glucose, oxidoreductases, physicochemical properties, quantitative polymerase chain reaction, reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, screening, sequence analysis, soil chemical properties, soil fertility, soil physical properties, soybeans, stress response, China
- BACKGROUND: Continuous cropping stress involves such factors as biological barriers, allelopathic autotoxicity, deterioration of soil physicochemical properties, and soil fertility imbalance and is regarded as a kind of comprehensive stress limiting soybean yield and quality. Genomic DNA methylation is an important regulatory mechanism for plants to resist various environmental stresses. Therefore, it is especially worthwhile to reveal genomic methylation characteristics under stress and clarify the relationship between DNA methylation status and continuous cropping stress adaptability in soybean. RESULTS: We generated a genome-wide map of cytosine methylation induced by this kind of comprehensive stress in a tolerant soybean variety (Kang Xian 2, KX2) and a sensitive variety (He Feng, HF55) using whole-genome bisulfite sequencing (WGBS) technology. The expression of DNA demethylase genes was detected using real-time quantitative PCR (qRT-PCR). The functions of differentially methylated genes (DMGs) involved in stress response in biochemical metabolism and genetic information transmission were further assessed based on Gene Ontology (GO) annotation and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis. The results showed that genomic DNA demethylation was closely related to continuous cropping comprehensive stress adaptability in soybean, which was further verified by the increasing expression of DNA demethylases ROS1 and DML. The demethylation of mCpG and mCpHpG (mCpApG preferred) contexts was more critical, which mainly occurred in gene-regulatory regions at the whole-chromosome scale. Moreover, this kind of stress adaptability may be related to various stress responders generated through strengthened glucose catabolism and amino acid and fatty acid anabolism, as well as fidelity transmission of genetic information. CONCLUSIONS: Genomic DNA demethylation was closely associated with continuous cropping comprehensive stress adaptability, highlighting the promising potential of screening continuous cropping-tolerant cultivars by DNA methylation index and further exploring the application of DNA demethylases in soybean breeding.