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Interior engineering of seaweed-derived N-doped versatile carbonaceous beads with CoₓOy for universal organic pollutant degradation

Bo, Shufeng, Zhao, Xin, An, Qingda, Luo, Junmei, Xiao, Zuoyi, Zhai, Shangru
RSC advances 2019 v.9 no.9 pp. 5009-5024
catalysts, catalytic activity, chlorides, engineering, ions, magnetic properties, methylene blue, models, nitrates, pollutants, pollution, polyethyleneimine, pyrolysis, remediation, seawater, structure-activity relationships, sulfates, temperature
The rational optimization of catalytic composites with excellent catalytic activities and long-term cycling stabilities for environmental remediation is still maintained as highly desired but is an ongoing challenge. Here, seaweed-derived N-doped versatile carbonaceous beads with CoₓOy (Co-NC-0.25-700 °C) are employed as a novel catalyst to activate peroxymonosulfate (PMS) for methylene blue (MB) degradation. Profiting from the improved structure–activity relationship and the synergistic effects between the “egg-box” structure and the CoₓOy loaded on the N-doped carbonaceous beads, Co-NC-0.25-700 °C exhibited relatively high performance and comparative long-term stability. The universal applicability of Co-NC-0.25-700 °C was investigated by degrading other types of organic pollutants in various systems. For this type of newly fabricated high-performance versatile composites, structure–property relationships were plausibly proposed. Notably, the degradation efficiency and the catalyst structure could be tailored by the amount of polyethyleneimine (PEI) introduced in the preparation process and by the pyrolysis temperature. More favorably, the coupling of the magnetic properties and bead-like shape endows the resultant composites with remarkable reusability and recyclability, as compared to powder state materials. Another interesting finding is that MB degradation over Co-NC-0.25-700 °C is minimally affected by common ions (Cl⁻, NO₃⁻, SO₄²⁻, etc.), and holds a certain catalytic activity under the background conditions of two simulated real water conditions (running water and seawater). Of particular interest, a microreactor filled with Co-NC-0.25-700 °C was utilized as a verification model for practical applications of the reaction in continuous-flow. More far-reaching, the simulations of actual water conditions and the design of a continuous-flow reactor represent a giant step towards universal applications for organic pollution treatment.