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Anthocyanins: From Sources and Bioavailability to Cardiovascular-Health Benefits and Molecular Mechanisms of Action
- Krga, Irena, Milenkovic, Dragan
- Journal of agricultural and food chemistry 2019 v.67 no.7 pp. 1771-1783
- anthocyanins, beverages, bioavailability, cardioprotective effect, clinical trials, dietary nutrient sources, genes, mechanism of action, microRNA, mortality, myocardial infarction, protein synthesis, risk reduction, small fruits
- Anthocyanins are phytochemicals widely found in plant foods, with berries and fruit-derived beverages as the main dietary sources. Accumulating evidence suggests the positive role of anthocyanins in preserving cardiovascular health. Epidemiological data show an association between anthocyanin intake and lower risk of myocardial infarction and cardiovascular-disease-related mortality. Clinical studies report the beneficial effects of the consumption of different anthocyanin-rich sources on surrogate markers of cardiovascular risk. Animal and in vitro evidence suggest the protective role of anthocyanins in dysfunctions related to the development of cardiovascular diseases. Still, the underlying molecular mechanisms of anthocyanin action seem complex and are not entirely clear. This review aims to give a comprehensive update on anthocyanins and their cardioprotective properties. It provides information on their sources; quantities consumed through diet; absorption; bioavailability; cardiovascular properties; and underlying mechanisms of action, including their effects on gene and protein expression and their interactions with cell-signaling pathways and miRNAs.