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Salicylic acid and ultrasonic stress modulated gene expression and ginsenoside production in differentially affected Panax quinquefolius (L.) and Panax sikkimensis (Ban.) cell suspensions
- Biswas, Tanya, Mathur, Archana, Gupta, Vikrant, Singh, Manju, Mathur, A. K.
- Plant cell, tissue, and organ culture 2019 v.136 no.3 pp. 575-588
- Panax quinquefolius, biomass production, cell suspension culture, exudation, gene expression, ginsenosides, salicylic acid, ultrasonics
- Biomass and in vitro ginsenoside accumulation in cell suspensions of Panax quinquefolius (L.) and P. sikkimensis (Ban.) are differentially affected, under influence of salicylic acid (SA; 100 and 200 µM) and ultrasonic stress (US; 120 W US power, 15 s). SA addition to P. quinquefolius, was observed to lead to decline in biomass accumulation; however SA100 treatment for 5 days led to a 2.6-fold increase in ginsenoside production and Rg3 induction and exudation (6.4 mg/L). Marginally declined growth and ginsenoside productivity was observed on US exposure (% BI or biomass increment = 150.2, ginsenoside = 24.9 mg/L) as compared to unchallenged cultures (% BI = 157.5, ginsenoside = 27.2 mg/L). Co-application of US to SA100 and SA200 treatments for 5 days, although had no significant effect on cell biomass, however led to a further decline in ginsenoside productivity (SA100 + US = 48.6 mg/L, SA200 + US = 27.9 mg/L), when compared to cultures treated only with SA (SA100 = 70.5 mg/L, SA200 = 39.4 mg/L). On the other hand, addition of SA100 and SA200 to P. sikkimensis for 1 week led to a sharp decline in biomass and ginsenoside production, when compared to control cultures. Interestingly, growth and ginsenoside productivity was significantly improved upon co-application of US. US exposure was probably “boosting” mechanism of SA action (SA100 + US = %BI = 124.3, ginsenoside = 57.7 mg/L, SA200 + US = % BI = 135.6, ginsenoside = 102.17 mg/L), when compared to cultures treated with only SA (SA100 = % BI = 96.6, ginsenoside = 19.6 mg/L, SA200 = % BI 103.4, ginsenoside = 36.3 mg/L). In brief, SA100 was the best treatment for maximum ginsenoside productivity specially ginsenoside Rg3 from P. quinquefolius, whereas, SA200 + US was observed to be optimal for P. sikkimensis cell suspensions.