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Comparative transcriptome analyses on terpenoids metabolism in field- and mountain-cultivated ginseng roots

Fan, Hang, Li, Ke, Yao, Fan, Sun, Liwei, Liu, Yujun
BMC plant biology 2019 v.19 no.1 pp. 82
Panax ginseng, abscisic acid, biosynthesis, carotenoids, chemical constituents of plants, diterpenoids, genes, gibberellins, ginsenosides, monoterpenoids, quinones, roots, steroids, vegetative growth
BACKGROUND: There exist differences in morphological traits and phytochemical compositions between field- and mountain-cultivated Panax ginseng (FCG and MCG), which might be attributed to variations of terpenoids metabolism adapting to different growth conditions. The present work aims to uncover these variations. RESULTS: Among 26,648 differentially expressed genes, 496 genes distributed in seven dominant terpenoids pathways were identified. Diterpenoids and triterpenoids biosynthesis genes were significantly higher-expressed in FCG root. Conversely, biosynthesis of carotenoids was significantly more active in MCG root. Additionally, terpenoids backbones, monoterpenoids, sesquiterpenoids, and terpenoid-quinones biosyntheses were neither obviously inclined. Our determination also revealed that there were more gibberellins and steroids accumulated in FCG root which might be responsible for its quick vegetative growth, and enriched abscisic acid and germacrenes as well as protopanaxatriol-type ginsenosides might be major causes of enhanced stress-resistance in MCG root. CONCLUSIONS: The study firstly provided an overview of terpenoids metabolism in roots of FCG and MCG in elucidating the underlying mechanisms for their different morphological appearances and phytochemical compositions.