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Effect of Soft Kernel Texture on the Milling Properties of Soft Durum Wheat
- Murray, Jessica C., Kiszonas, Alecia M., Wilson, Jeff, Morris, Craig F.
- Cereal chemistry 2016 v.93 no.5 pp. 513-517
- Triticum aestivum, Triticum turgidum subsp. durum, backcrossing, durum wheat, flour, genes, hard red spring wheat, hardness, hexaploidy, introgression, milling, pasta, phenotype, seeds, semolina, texture, winter wheat
- Worldwide, nearly 20 times more common wheat (Triticum aestivum) is produced than durum wheat (T. turgidum subsp. durum). Durum wheat is predominately milled into coarse semolina owing to the extreme hardness of the kernels. Semolina, lacking the versatility of traditional flour, is used primarily in the production of pasta. The puroindoline genes, responsible for kernel softness in wheat, have been introduced into durum via homoeologous recombination. The objective of this study was to determine what impact the introgression of the puroindoline genes, and subsequent expression of the soft kernel phenotype, had on the milling properties and flour characteristics of durum wheat. Three grain lots of Soft Svevo and one of Soft Alzada, two soft-kernel back-cross derived durum varieties, were milled into flour on the modified Quadrumat Senior laboratory mill at 13, 14, and 16% temper levels. Samples of Svevo (a durum wheat and recurrent parent of Soft Svevo), Xerpha (a soft white winter wheat), and Expresso (a hard red spring wheat) were included as comparisons. Soft Svevo and Soft Alzada exhibited dramatically lower single-kernel characterization system kernel hardness than the other samples. Soft Svevo and Soft Alzada had high break flour yields, similar to the common wheat samples, especially the soft hexaploid wheat, and markedly greater than the durum samples. Overall, Soft Svevo and Soft Alzada exhibited milling properties and flour quality comparable, if not superior, to those of common wheat.