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Plasmodium vivax CSP-Pvs25 variants from southern Mexico produce distinct patterns of infectivity for Anopheles albimanus versus An. pseudopunctipennis, in each case independent of geographical origin

González-Cerón, Lilia, Rodríguez, Mario H., Nettel-Cruz, José A., Hernández-Ávila, Juan E., Malo-García, Iliana R., Santillán-Valenzuela, Frida, Villarreal-Treviño, Cuauhtémoc
Parasites & vectors 2019 v.12 no.1 pp. 86
Anopheles albimanus, Anopheles pseudopunctipennis, Plasmodium vivax, blood, blood sampling, coasts, genetic variation, genotyping, haplotypes, hills, oocysts, ookinetes, parasitemia, parasites, pathogenicity, provenance, surface proteins, sympatry, Guatemala, Mexico
BACKGROUND: The susceptibility of Anopheles albimanus and An. pseudopunctipennis to local Plasmodium vivax has been associated in southern Mexico with two ookinete surface proteins (Pvs25/28) polymorphism. Perhaps parasite population selection (i.e. adaptation to local vectors) contributes to this phenomenon. It is also possible that certain molecular interactions exist between P. vivax and each mosquito species independently of geographical origin. This study aimed to explore the susceptibility of An. albimanus and An. pseudopunctipennis (collected from different geographical sites) to P. vivax cspVk/Pvs25-130 haplotypes from southern Mexico. RESULTS: Of the 120 P. vivax-infected blood samples used to simultaneously feed An. albimanus and An. pseudopunctipennis mosquitoes originating from various geographical sites, 80 produced at least one infected mosquito species. Three parasite haplotypes were identified in infected blood: Vk210/Pvs25-A (12.5%), Vk210/Pvs25-B (20%) and Vk247/Pvs25-B (67.5%). Two parameters (the proportion of infected mosquitoes and number of oocysts/mosquito) showed a similar pattern for each mosquito species (independently of geographical origin). For An. albimanus mosquitoes (from the Pacific coast, Mexican gulf and Lacandon Forest lowlands), these two parameters were higher in specimens infected with P. vivax Vk210/Pvs25-A versus Vk210/Pvs25-B or Vk247/Pvs25-B (P < 0.001). For An. pseudopunctipennis mosquitoes (from the Pacific coast, northeast Mexico and east Guatemala foothills), the same two parameters were higher in specimens infected with Vk247/Pvs25-B or Vk210/Pvs25-B versus Vk210/Pvs25-A (P < 0.001). Higher infection rates were caused by Vk247/Pvs25-B than Vk210/Pvs25-B parasites in An. pseudopunctipennis (P = 0.011) and An. albimanus (P = 0.001). The greatest parasitaemia, gametocytaemia and microgamete formation was observed in Vk247/Pvs25-B infected blood, and each of these parameters correlated with each other and with the number of oocysts in An. pseudopunctipennis from the sympatric colony. CONCLUSIONS: Plasmodium vivax Vk247/Pvs25-B infections were the most prevalent, likely due to the higher parasitaemia produced in the susceptible vector (especially An. pseudopunctipennis). The analysis of mosquito-parasite interactions indicate that An. pseudopunctipennis and An. albimanus each have a unique pattern of transmitting genetic variants of P. vivax, and this is not dependent on geographical origin. The present findings highlight the importance of parasite genotyping to understand transmission dynamics and vectorial participation.