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Significant role of Asn-247 and Arg-64 residues in close proximity of the active site in maintaining the catalytic function of CTX-M-15 type β-lactamase

Lubna Maryam, Shamsi Khalid, Abid Ali, Asad U. Khan
RSC advances 2019 v.9 no.10 pp. 5325-5337
Enterobacteriaceae, active sites, antibiotic resistance, arginine, asparagine, bacterial infections, beta-lactamase, cefotaxime, circular dichroism spectroscopy, fluorescence, hydrolysis, minimum inhibitory concentration, mutants, polymerase chain reaction, proteins, site-directed mutagenesis, spectral analysis
Members of Enterobacteriaceae cause antibiotic-resistant infections worldwide. One such marker, CTX-M-15, expressed by Enterobacteriaceae produces β-lactamases, which hydrolyze the cephalosporin group of antibiotics, such as cefotaxime, used in the treatment of both Gram-positive and negative bacterial infections. Amino acid residues present in close proximity of the active site might also play a major role in the structure and function of CTX-M-15, hence the objective of this study was to investigate the significance of two amino acid residues, Asn-247 and Arg-64, present near to the active site in the hydrolysis of cefotaxime. blaCTX₋M₋₁₅, cloned from the E. cloacae strain, and using Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)-based site-directed mutagenesis, Asn247Val and Arg64Leu mutations were introduced. The minimum inhibitory concentrations of cefotaxime for the CTX-M-15 (N247V) and CTX-M-15 (R64L) mutants were reduced by 512 and 128 fold, respectively. Proteins/enzymes of wild-type CTX-M-15, CTX-M-15 (N247V) and CTX-M-15 (R64L) mutants were expressed and purified. Kinetic studies showed that the catalytic efficiencies of the N247V mutant and R64L mutant enzymes in the hydrolysis of cefotaxime were reduced by 89.66% and 71.11%, respectively. Circular dichroism spectroscopic studies showed considerable changes in the α-helical content of the mutant enzymes. A fluorescence study showed that N247V mutant-cefotaxime and R64L mutant-cefotaxime underwent complex formation with strong interactions. The study provides an understanding of the crucial role of the amino acid residues asparagine 247 and arginine 64 present in close proximity of the active site in the hydrolytic mechanism of CTX-M-15 type β-lactamases. Hence, Asn-247 and Arg-64 can be used as potential target sites for the design of inhibitory molecules against CTX-M-15-producing bacterial strains.