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Yield and kernel nutritional quality in normal maize and quality protein maize cultivars exposed to ozone

Author:
Singh, Aditya‐Abha, Agrawal, Shashi B, Shahi, Jay P, Agrawal, Madhoolika
Source:
Journal of the science of food and agriculture 2019 v.99 no.5 pp. 2205-2214
ISSN:
0022-5142
Subject:
autoxidation, crop yield, food security, essential fatty acids, reducing sugars, starch, saturated fatty acids, omega-3 fatty acids, cultivars, lysine, carbohydrate content, corn, ozone, oils, lipid content, phytotoxicity, essential amino acids, nutritive value, tryptophan, endosperm, polyunsaturated fatty acids, troposphere
Abstract:
BACKGROUND: Tropospheric ozone (O₃) is phytotoxic and therefore impacts global food security. In the present study yield responses and kernel quality traits of two maize cultivars [DHM117: normal maize (NM)] and [HQPM1: quality protein maize (QPM)] are investigated. Cultivars were exposed to two doses of elevated O₃, namely NFC + 15 and NFC + 30 ppb O₃ above ambient level (NFC, non‐filtered chambers) while filtered chambers served as control. RESULTS: Test weight (thousand kernel weight), weight of kernels per square meter and kernel starch content reduced more in NM than QPM due to elevated O₃ exposure. Total soluble and reducing sugars increased in both the cultivars being more in NM. Though, endosperm protein showed comparatively more increase in QPM than NM, decline in essential amino acids tryptophan and lysine was higher in QPM. Majority of nutrient elements increased after O₃ treatment, while reductions in oil content as well as saturated fatty acids were observed in both test cultivars. Of the two essential fatty acids, omega 3 fatty acid reduced while omega 6 fatty acid contents increased in QPM. Oil became more unsaturated (increase in polyunsaturated fatty acids) upon O₃ exposure, thus increasing its reactivity and hence became more prone to auto‐oxidation. CONCLUSIONS: Elevated O₃ caused losses in yield of maize cultivars and NM showed higher sensitivity than QPM. Kernel quality analysis revealed significant changes in nutritional parameters. Carbohydrate content reduced more in NM, while essential amino acids and saturated fatty acids showed more decline in QPM. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry
Agid:
6313906