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Diversity of oil yield, fatty acids, tocopherols, tocotrienols, and sterols in the seeds of 19 interspecific grapes crosses

Górnaś, Paweł, Rudzińska, Magdalena, Grygier, Anna, Lācis, Gunārs
Journal of the science of food and agriculture 2019 v.99 no.5 pp. 2078-2087
Vitis amurensis, Vitis riparia, Vitis rupestris, Vitis vinifera, alpha-linolenic acid, beta-sitosterol, bioactive compounds, campesterol, crossing, genotype, grape seeds, grapes, linoleic acid, lipid content, lipophilicity, oleic acid, palmitic acid, seed oils, seeds, tocopherols, tocotrienols
BACKGROUND: The seeds of Vitis vinifera grapes have been studied extensively but knowledge about the interspecific crosses of other Vitis species (e.g. V. vinifera, V. amurensis, V. rupestris, V. riparia, and V. labruska) is very limited. RESULTS: The oil yields recovered from the grape seeds ranged between 7 and 160 g kg⁻¹ dw. The main fatty acids were linoleic (72.5–83.1%), oleic (6.2–15.5%), and palmitic (5.4–13.2%), which together constituted 92.8–97.1% of the total detected fatty acids. The total concentration of tocopherol (T) and tocotrienol (T3) homologues was between 0.785 and 9.033 g kg⁻¹ oil. The concentration of sterols varied significantly and ranged between 2.912 and 105.962 g kg⁻¹ oil. The β‐sitosterol constituted 68.2–86.3% of the total content of sterols. The oil yield in grape seeds significantly correlated with the oleic acid, α‐linolenic acid, α‐T, α‐T3, γ‐T3, campesterol, Δ5‐stigmasterol, β‐sitosterol, and total Ts + T3 s and sterols. CONCLUSION: The present study demonstrated that seed oil recovered from different interspecific Vitis crosses is a rich source of minor lipophilic bioactive compounds, especially genotypes with low oil content. They can be used to enrich plant oils that are poor in tocotrienols and/or phytosterols without changing the fatty acid composition of main oil, due to low enrichment quantities (micro‐blends). © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry