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Alternative Methods to SO2 for Microbiological Stabilization of Wine
- Lisanti, Maria Tiziana, Blaiotta, Giuseppe, Nioi, Claudia, Moio, Luigi
- Comprehensive reviews in food science and food safety 2019 v.18 no.2 pp. 455-479
- additives, antimicrobial properties, antioxidants, chemistry, process control, spoilage, sulfur dioxide, wine industry, winemaking, wines
- The use of sulfur dioxide (SO₂) as wine additive is able to ensure both antioxidant protection and microbiological stability. In spite of these undeniable advantages, in the last two decades the presence of SO₂ in wine has raised concerns about potential adverse clinical effects in sensitive individuals. The winemaking industry has followed the general trend towards the reduction of SO₂ concentrations in food, by expressing at the same time the need for alternative control methods allowing reduction or even elimination of SO₂. In the light of this, research has been strongly oriented toward the study of alternatives to the use of SO₂ in wine. Most of the studies have focused on methods able to replace the antimicrobial activity of SO₂. This review article gives a comprehensive overview of the current state‐of‐the‐art about the chemical additives and the innovative physical techniques that have been proposed for this purpose. After a focus on the chemistry and properties of SO₂ in wine, as well as on wine spoilage and on the conventional methods used for the microbiological stabilization of wine, recent advances on alternative methods proposed to replace the antimicrobial activity of SO₂ in winemaking are presented and discussed. Even though many of the alternatives to SO₂ showed good efficacy, nowadays no other physical technique or additive can deliver the efficacy and broad spectrum of action as SO₂ (both antioxidant and antimicrobial), therefore the alternative methods should be considered a complement to SO₂ in low‐sulfite winemaking, rather than being seen as its substitutes.