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A Comprehensive Review on Kiwifruit Allergy: Pathogenesis, Diagnosis, Management, and Potential Modification of Allergens Through Processing
- Wang, Jin, Vanga, Sai Kranthi, McCusker, Christine, Raghavan, Vijaya
- Comprehensive reviews in food science and food safety 2019 v.18 no.2 pp. 500-513
- allergenicity, allergens, anaphylaxis, antioxidants, bioactive compounds, dietary fiber, elicitors, food allergies, food processing, fruits, heart diseases, immune response, immune system, kiwifruit, medical treatment, minerals, neoplasms, omega-3 fatty acids, pathogenesis, processing chemistry, processing technology, proteins, sugars, temperature, vitamins
- Kiwifruit is rich in bioactive components including dietary fibers, carbohydrates, natural sugars, vitamins, minerals, omega‐3 fatty acids, and antioxidants. These components are beneficial to boost the human immune system and prevent cancer and heart diseases. However, kiwifruit is emerging as one of the most common elicitors of food allergies worldwide. Kiwifruit allergy results from an abnormal immune response to kiwifruit proteins and occur after consuming this fruit. Symptoms range from the oral allergy syndrome (OAS) to the life‐threatening anaphylaxis. Thirteen different allergens have been identified in green kiwifruit and, among these allergens, Act d 1, Act d 2, Act d 8, Act d 11, and Act d 12 are defined as the “major allergens.” Act d 1 and Act d 2 are ripening‐related allergens and are found in abundance in fully ripe kiwifruit. Structures of several kiwifruit allergens may be altered under high temperatures or strong acidic conditions. This review discusses the pathogenesis, clinical features, and diagnosis of kiwifruit allergy and evaluates food processing methods including thermal, ultrasound, and chemical processing which may be used to reduce the allergenicity of kiwifruit. Management and medical treatments for kiwifruit allergy are also summarized.