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High‐Amylose Starches to Bridge the “Fiber Gap”: Development, Structure, and Nutritional Functionality
- Li, Haiteng, Gidley, Michael J., Dhital, Sushil
- Comprehensive reviews in food science and food safety 2019 v.18 no.2 pp. 362-379
- amylases, barley, chemical structure, corn, diet, digestive enzymes, food industry, food processing, foods, functional properties, heat treatment, nutritive value, potatoes, resistant starch, rice, wheat
- Although high‐amylose starches are not a recent innovation, their popularity in recent years has been increasing due to their unique functional properties and enhanced nutritional values in food applications. While high‐amylose maize, barley, and potato are commercially available, high‐amylose variants of other main crops such as wheat and rice have once been developed more recently and will be available commercially in the near future. This review summarizes the development, structure, and nutritional functionality of high‐amylose starches developed and reported so far. The range of biotechnological strategies utilized are reviewed, as are the consequent effects on structural properties at different length scales, as well as sensory aspects of foods containing high‐amylose starch (HAS). This review identifies the molecular and microstructural features contributing to digestive enzyme resistance not only in native HAS but also in forms of relevance to food processing. During heat treatment, HAS tends to retain or form dense molecular structures that resist amylase degradation through the retention of the granular structure as well as helices (type‐2 resistant starch [RS]), reassociation of glucan chains (type‐3 RS), and formation of lipid–amylose complexes (type‐5 RS). The review also identifies opportunities for food manufacturers and consumers to incorporate HAS in food products and diets for better nutritional outcomes.