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The hydrology and sediment yield of the Sungai Air Terjun catchment, Penang Hill, Malaysia
- ISMAIL, WAN RUSLAN
- Hydrological sciences journal 2000 v.45 no.6 pp. 897-910
- air, anthropogenic activities, base flow, hills, landslides, runoff, sediment transport, sediment yield, sediments, storms, suspended sediment, watersheds, Malaysia
- The hydrology and sediment yield of the relatively undisturbed Sungai Air Terjun catchment on the forested Penang Hill was investigated in 1993–1994. Baseflow accounted for 87.3% of the total runoff, while quickflow comprised 12.7%. The suspended sediment concentration varied from an average concentration of 11.36 mg 1−1 (range: 0.5–60.5 mg 1−1) during low flow to an average concentration of 125.5 mg 1−1 (range: 11–668.7 mg 1−1) during storms. Suspended sediment transport during storms accounted for as little as 0.69% of the total sediment transport in the driest month, but as much as 52.35% in the wettest month, November 1993. The frequent high-intensity storms on the hill account for the removal of sediment from the hill. Natural disturbances, such as both landslides and human interference, affect the availability of sediment and thus influence variations in sediment output.