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Kinetics of Systemic Invasion and Latent and Incubation Periods of Tomato severe rugose virus and Tomato chlorosis virus in Single and Co-Infections in Tomato Plants

Favara, Gabriel Madoglio, Bampi, Daiana, Molina, Juan Pablo Edwards, Rezende, Jorge Alberto Marques
Phytopathology 2019 v.109 no.3 pp. 480-487
Bemisia tabaci, Solanum lycopersicum, Tomato chlorosis virus, inoculum, latent period, mixed infection, tomatoes, viruses, Brazil, East Asia
Tomato severe rugose virus (ToSRV) and Tomato chlorosis virus (ToCV) are among the major viruses that affect tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) development and yield in Brazil. ToSRV and ToCV are transmitted in a persistent circulative and semipersistent manner, respectively, by the whitefly Bemisia tabaci Middle East-Asia Minor 1, considered the main vector of these viruses. In this study, the kinetics of systemic invasion and the latent and incubation periods of ToSRV and ToCV were evaluated in singly and doubly infected tomato plants. Both viruses moved systemically into tomato plants as early as 1 day after inoculation. The mean ToCV latent periods in single infections and co-infections with ToSRV were 13 and 11 days, respectively, while incubation periods in single and co-infections were, on average, 30 and 31 days, respectively. For ToSRV, the mean latent period was 7 days in single infections and 6 days in co-infections with ToCV. Incubation periods were, on average, 18 and 17 days in single and co-infections, respectively. Because latent periods for both viruses were shorter than their respective incubation periods, field-infected tomato plants may act as sources of inocula soon after infection and before onset of symptoms.