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Inclusion of various amounts of steam-flaked soybeans in lactating dairy cattle diets

H.R. Bruns, A.R. Hippen, K.F. Kalscheur, D.J. Schingoethe
Journal of dairy science 2015 v.98 no.10 pp. 7218-7225
Holstein, body condition, body weight, calcium, cattle feeds, choice white grease, conjugated linolenic acid, dairy cows, dry matter intake, feed composition, feed conversion, feed supplements, forage, lactating females, lactation, lactose, linoleic acid, milk, milk fat percentage, milk production, salts, soybean hulls, soybean meal, soybeans, urea nitrogen
Whereas most soybean feedstuffs have been extensively investigated for use in ruminant diets, a lack of information exists regarding steam-flaked soybeans (SFSB). This research evaluated various inclusion rates of SFSB in diets for lactating dairy cattle. Twelve multiparous Holstein cows (103±39 d in milk) were used in a 4×4 Latin square experiment consisting of 28-d periods, 14 d for diet transitioning followed by a 14-d sampling period. Treatments were inclusion of SFSB at 0, 5, 10, and 15% of dietary dry matter (DM), replacing a mixture of soybean meal, soy hulls, calcium salts of fatty acids, and choice white grease. Animals were fed lactating dairy cow diets formulated to be isonitrogenous and isoenergetic, containing 60% of DM as forage and 40% of DM as concentrate. Dry matter intake (mean=28.8kg/d), milk production (42.2kg/d), milk fat percentage (3.52%), and feed efficiency (1.43kg of energy-corrected milk/kg of DM intake) were similar across all treatments. Milk protein (2.98%) and lactose (4.87%) were also unaffected by the amount of SFSB in the diet. Milk urea nitrogen concentration decreased linearly as the amount of SFSB in the diet increased. Unlike some other soybean supplements, feeding SFSB did not increase trans-11 C18:1 or cis-9,trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid, but instead resulted in increased cis-9,cis-12 C18:2 and α-C18:3. Body weights (752kg) and body condition scores (3.17) were similar with all diets. This research demonstrated that SFSB can be substituted for soybean meal and commercial fat sources while maintaining milk and milk component production and decrease milk urea nitrogen concentration.