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Classification of Plasma Cell Disorders by 21 Tesla Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance Top-Down and Middle-Down MS/MS Analysis of Monoclonal Immunoglobulin Light Chains in Human Serum

He, Lidong, Anderson, Lissa C., Barnidge, David R., Murray, David L., Dasari, Surendra, Dispenzieri, Angela, Hendrickson, Christopher L., Marshall, Alan G.
Analytical chemistry 2019 v.91 no.5 pp. 3263-3269
B-lymphocytes, amino acids, amyloidosis, blood serum, bone marrow, genomics, germ cells, humans, immunoglobulin heavy chains, immunoglobulin light chains, myeloma, sequence analysis, survival rate, tandem mass spectrometry
The current five-year survival rate for systemic AL amyloidosis or multiple myeloma is ∼51%, indicating the urgent need for better diagnosis methods and treatment plans. Here, we describe highly specific and sensitive top-down and middle-down MS/MS methods owning the advantages of fast sample preparation, ultrahigh mass accuracy, and extensive residue cleavages with 21 telsa FT–ICR MS/MS. Unlike genomic testing, which requires bone marrow aspiration and may fail to identify all monoclonal immunoglobulins produced by the body, the present method requires only a blood draw. In addition, circulating monoclonal immunoglobulins spanning the entire population are analyzed and reflect the selection of germline sequence by B cells. The monoclonal immunoglobulin light chain FR2-CDR2-FR3 was sequenced by database-aided de novo MS/MS and 100% matched the gene sequencing result, except for two amino acids with isomeric counterparts, enabling accurate germline sequence classification. The monoclonal immunoglobulin heavy chains were also classified into specific germline sequences based on the present method. This work represents the first application of top/middle-down MS/MS sequencing of endogenous human monoclonal immunoglobulins with polyclonal immunoglobulins background.