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Luminescence Lifetime Imaging of Chemical Sensors—A Comparison between Time-Domain and Frequency-Domain Based Camera Systems
- Koren, Klaus, Moßhammer, Maria, Scholz, Vincent V., Borisov, Sergey M., Holst, Gerhard, Kühl, Michael
- Analytical chemistry 2019 v.91 no.5 pp. 3233-3238
- cameras, dyes, image analysis, luminescence, oxygen, pH
- Luminescence lifetime based imaging is still the most reliable method for generating chemical images using chemical sensor technology. However, only few commercial systems are available that enable imaging lifetimes within the relevant nanosecond to microsecond range. In this technical note we compare the performance of an older time-domain (TD) based camera system with a frequency-domain (FD) based camera system regarding their measuring characteristics and applicability for O₂ and pH imaging in environmental samples and with different indicator dye systems emitting in the visible and near-infrared part of the spectrum. We conclude that the newly introduced FD imaging system delivers comparable if not better results than its predecessor, now enabling robust and simple chemical imaging based on FD luminescence lifetime measurements.