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Genes Expressed Differentially in Hessian Fly Larvae Feeding in Resistant and Susceptible Plants

Ming Shun Chen, Sanzhen Liu, Haiyan Wang, Xiaoyan Cheng, Mustapha El Bouhssini, R. Jeff Whitworth
International journal of molecular sciences 2016 v.17 no.8 pp. 1324
Mayetiola destructor, RNA, cultivars, cytochrome P-450, death, gene expression, gene expression regulation, genes, insect larvae, instars, pest resistance, plant pests, protein synthesis, salivary glands, toxic substances, transcription factors, wheat
The Hessian fly, Mayetiola destructor, is a destructive pest of wheat worldwide and mainly controlled by deploying resistant cultivars. Hessian fly larvae manipulate susceptible plants extensively, but are unable to manipulate resistant plants and thus die in them. The mechanisms for Hessian fly larvae to manipulate susceptible plants and but die in resistant plants remain unknown. Here we investigated the genes that were expressed differentially between larvae in resistant plants and those in susceptible plants. Informative genes were 11,832, 14,861, 15,708, and 15,071 for the comparisons between larvae in resistant and susceptible plants for 0.5, 1, 3, and 5 days, respectively. The transcript abundance corresponding to 5,401, 6,902, 8,457, and 5,202 of the informative genes exhibited significant differences (P=0.05) in the respective paired comparisons. Many more genes involved in nutrient metabolism, RNA metabolism, and protein synthesis exhibited lower transcript abundance in larvae in resistant plants, indicating that general metabolism and protein production were suppressed in those larvae. Interestingly, the percentages of cytochrome P450 genes with higher transcript abundance in larvae in resistant plants were comparable to or higher than the percentages of those genes with lower transcript abundance, indicating that toxic chemicals from resistant plants may have played important roles in Hessian fly larval death. Our study also identified several families of genes encoding secreted salivary gland proteins (SSGPs) that were expressed at early stage of 1st instar larvae and with more genes with higher transcript abundance in larvae in resistant plants. Those SSGPs are candidate effectors to play critical roles as effectors for plant manipulation.