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Impact of Bioconversion of Gallated Catechins and Flavonol Glycosides on Bioaccessibility and Intestinal Cellular Uptake of Catechins

Choi, Eun-Hye, Rha, Chan-Su, Balusamy, Sri Renukadevi, Kim, Dae-Ok, Shim, Soon-Mi
Journal of agricultural and food chemistry 2019 v.67 no.8 pp. 2331-2339
2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, P-glycoproteins, antioxidant activity, bioavailability, biotransformation, endo-1,4-beta-glucanase, epicatechin, epigallocatechin gallate, flavonols, glycosides, green tea, intestines, multiple drug resistance, tannase
Two bioconversions were applied to green tea extracts (GTE) and flavonol glycoside rich fraction (FVNg) derived from insoluble green tea extract by tannase and cellulase treatment in order to obtain gallated catechins (EnzGTE) and flavonol aglycone rich fraction (FVNa), respectively. The bioaccessibility of epicatechins from GTE increased with the addition of FVNg, FVNa, and flavonol aglycone rich fraction of commercial production (FVNap). Epigallocatechin-gallate (EGCG) and epicatechin-gallate (ECG) were highly recovered 4- and 125-fold, respectively, by adding FVNap. They were mostly affected by the radical scavenging activity provided from FVNap, showing remarkable 2,2′-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) (10769.3 μg/g) and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) (8341.5 μg/g) values. The intestinal cellular uptake of epicatechins in GTE increased with the FVNap addition as follows: EGCG (332.46 ± 136.18%) > ECG (273.92 ± 97.92%) > epicatechin (EC) (150.22 ± 12.59%) > epigallocatechin (EGC) (131.21 ± 8.51%). EnzGTE and EnzGTE + FVNa were revealed to have a significant downregulation on the expression of P-glycoprotein (P-gp), up to 0.06- and 0.6-fold, respectively. The gene expression of multidrug resistance associated proteins 2 (MRP2) was reduced in EnzGTE + FVNap. The results suggest that coconsumption GTE or EnzGTE with GTE-derived flavonols could improve the bioavailability of epicatechins.