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A Biogeographic View of Apodemus in Asia and Europe Inferred From Nuclear and Mitochondrial Gene Sequences

Suzuki, Hitoshi, Filippucci, Maria Grazia, Chelomina, Galina N., Sato, Jun J., Serizawa, Keiko, Nevo, Eviatar
Biochemical genetics 2008 v.46 no.5-6 pp. 329-346
Apodemus agrarius, genes, nucleotide sequences, Asia, Europe, Southern European region
Sequences of the mitochondrial cyt b gene and nuclear IRBP, RAGI, I7, and vWF genes were used to assess the evolutionary history of major lineages of Apodemus, in particular to better understand dispersal between Asia and Europe. Our data show eight extant lineages of Late Tertiary origin: Apodemus agrarius, A. semotus, A. peninsulae, A. speciosus, A. argenteus, A. gurkha, A. mystacinus, and A. sylvaticus. Monophyly of two European lineages (A. mystacinus and A. sylvaticus) and four Asian lineages (A. agrarius, A. semotus, A. peninsulae, and A. speciosus) was confirmed with high bootstrap support. Together with literature data, the available molecular data depict three crucial evolutionary events: (1) initial wide dispersal and subsequent radiation around 6 million years ago, (2) region-specific radiations in Europe and southern China around 2 million years ago, and (3) westward dispersal of A. agrarius to Europe in the Late Quaternary.