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Maternal HMB treatment affects bone and hyaline cartilage development in their weaned piglets via the leptin/osteoprotegerin system

Tomaszewska, Ewa, Muszyński, Siemowit, Dobrowolski, Piotr, Wiącek, Dariusz, Tomczyk‐Warunek, Agnieszka, Świetlicka, Izabela, Pierzynowski, Stefan G.
Journal of animal physiology and animal nutrition 2019 v.103 no.2 pp. 626-643
body weight, bone metabolism, cartilage, collagen, diet, femur, growth plate, insulin-like growth factor I, leptin, leucine, males, metabolites, neonates, piglets, pregnancy, progeny, proteoglycans, skeletal development, sows, staining, strength (mechanics), thermal stability, weaning
It has been demonstrated in animal studies that prenatal administration of β‐hydroxy‐β‐methylbutyrate (HMB, metabolite of leucine) influences general growth and mechanical endurance of long bones in newborn offspring in sex‐dependent manner. The present experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of HMB treatment of pregnant sows on bone development in offspring at weaning. From 70th day until the 90th day of gestation, sows received either a basal diet (n = 12) or the same diet supplemented with HMB (n = 12) at the dose of 0.2 g/kg of body weight/day. Femora obtained from six males and females in each group weaned at the age of 35 days were examined. Maternal HMB treatment significantly enhanced body weight and changed bone morphology increasing femur mechanical strength in both sexes. Maternal HMB supplementation also elevated bone micro‐ and macroelement concentrations and enhanced content of proteoglycans in articular cartilage. Based on the obtained results, it can be concluded that maternal HMB supplementation in the mid‐gestation period significantly accelerated bone development in both sexes by upregulation of a multifactorial system including leptin and osteoprotegerin. However, the sex (irrespective of the HMB treatment) was the factor which influenced the collagen structure in cartilages and trabecular bone, as demonstrated both by the Picrosirius red staining and performed analysis of thermal stability of collagenous tissues. The structural differences in collagen between males and females were presumably related to a different collagen maturity. No studies conducted so far provided a detailed morphological analysis of bone, articular cartilage, growth plate and the activities of the somatotropic and pituitary–gonadal axes, as well as leptin/osteoprotegerin system in weaned offspring prenatally treated with HMB. This study showed also the relationship between the maternal HMB treatment and bone osteometric and mechanical traits, hormones, and growth and bone turnover markers such as leptin, osteoprotegerin and insulin‐like growth factor‐1.