Main content area

Canine and feline emphysematous gastritis may be differentiated from gastric emphysema based on clinical and imaging characteristics: Five cases

Thierry, Florence, Ferreira, Marisa F., Paterson, Gavin K., Liuti, Tiziana, Del‐Pozo, Jorge
Veterinary radiology & ultrasound 2019 v.60 no.2 pp. 136-144
anemia, antibiotics, cats, dogs, etiology, gastritis, gastrointestinal system, image analysis, pulmonary emphysema, radiography, risk factors, therapeutics, ultrasonography
Gastric pneumatosis is an imaging finding defined as the presence of gas foci in the gastric wall. In humans, this imaging feature can result from one of two separate clinical entities: life‐threatening emphysematous gastritis or clinically benign gastric emphysema. This retrospective case series study describes the clinical and imaging features in five animals diagnosed with spontaneous gastric pneumatosis without gastric dilatation‐volvulus. Three canine and two feline cases of spontaneous gastric pneumatosis were identified on radiographic and ultrasonographic examinations. In addition to gastric pneumatosis, one dog and two cats presented concomitant systemic signs such as lethargy, hematemesis, anemia, or leukocytosis. Two dogs remained asymptomatic or presented mild gastrointestinal signs. Portal gas was described in two dogs and one cat, and pneumoperitoneum in one dog. These features were not considered clinically significant. The dog and two cats with systemic signs were euthanized due to clinical deterioration and diagnosed with emphysematous gastritis. The gastric pneumatosis of both dogs without systemic signs resolved while on medical management without antibiotic therapy. These latter cases were interpreted as consistent with gastric emphysema. Findings from the current study indicated that gastric pneumatosis can occur without gastric dilatation‐volvulus in cats and dogs and that a combination of clinical and imaging characteristics may help to differentiate between potentially life‐threatening emphysematous gastritis and relatively benign gastric emphysema. More studies are needed to determine the etiology and risk factors associated with these conditions.