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Chemical and Sensory Characteristics of Extra Virgin Olive Oils Produced in Central Iberian Peninsula Under the Protected Designation of Origin Quality Scheme
- Fregapane, Giuseppe, Salvador, Maria Desamparados
- European journal of lipid science and technology 2019 v.121 no.3 pp. e1800134
- European Union, Olea europaea, bitterness, campesterol, erythrodiol, extra-virgin olive oil, farmers, fatty acid composition, phenolic compounds, protected designation of origin, provenance, purchasing, stigmasterol, Iberian Peninsula, Spain
- The chemical and sensory characteristics of the extra virgin olive oils (EVOO) produced in the Spanish regions of Castilla‐La Mancha and Extremadura according to the protected designation of origin (PDO) quality scheme of the European Union are reviewed. This zone is the second in importance in Spain after the southern region of Andalusia. A total PDO olive trees cultivated surface of 694 800 ha, almost one‐third of the total, and some 380 related oil mills are currently registered in Spain. Cornicabra and Picual EVOOs − related to Montes de Toledo, Campo de Montiel, and Calatrava PDOs − are those with the highest intensity of bitterness and pungency, sensory attributes directly related to their higher content in phenolic compounds (556 ± 214 and 605 ± 180 mg kg⁻¹, respectively). On the contrary, Manzanilla cacereña and Cornezuelo oils − associated with Gata‐Hurdes and Aceites Monterrubio PDOs − show a lower score in these two positive attributes. Differences in the fatty acid profile and in certain sterols and triterpenic alcohols (mainly total content, campesterol, Δ5‐Avenasterol, stigmasterol, and erythrodiol and uvaol) may be useful, not without difficulties and in combination with other families of chemical compounds (e.g., individual phenolics and volatiles) to discriminate between olive oils obtained from different varieties or geographical areas. Practical Applications: It is relevant to gather and compare the chemical and sensory characteristics of the PDO EVOOs produced in the central Iberian Peninsula, the second main zone of economic importance in Spain. Indeed, providing clear information on olive oils linked to geographical origin is of interest to farmers and producers and furthermore enable consumers to make more informed purchasing choices. A critical review on published data is also useful to focus the design of future studies needed for achieving the full characterization of these EVOOs. The chemical and sensory characteristics of the extra virgin olive oils (EVOO) produced according to the protected designation of origin (PDO) quality scheme in the central Iberian Peninsula, the Spanish regions of Castilla‐La Mancha (4 PDOs), and Extremadura (2 PDOs) are reviewed. This geographical zone is the second in Spain regarding cultivated surface and oil production after the southern region of Andalusia.