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Phytol ameliorated benzo(a)pyrene induced lung carcinogenesis in Swiss albino mice via inhibition of oxidative stress and apoptosis

Sakthivel, Ravi, Sheeja Malar, Dicson, Archunan, Govindaraju, Pandima Devi, Kasi
Environmental toxicology 2019 v.34 no.4 pp. 355-363
albino, antioxidants, apoptosis, benzo(a)pyrene, carcinogenesis, caspase-3, caspase-9, laboratory animals, lipid peroxidation, lung neoplasms, lungs, mice, mortality, oxidative stress, pro-apoptotic proteins, proteins, toxicity
In the present study, the modulatory effect of phytol against benzo(a)pyrene [B(a)P] induced lung carcinogenesis was investigated in Swiss albino mice. During the experimental period, phytol treatment showed no adverse toxic effect and mortality to the experimental animals. Lung tumor was observed in B(a)P treated group and also in animals post‐treated with low concentration (50 mg/kg) of phytol. No neoplastic changes were observed in the lung tissue of the animals treated with the maximum dose of phytol (100 mg/kg). An elevated level of antioxidant enzymes combined with macromolecular damage (lipid peroxidation, protein carbonyl content) was observed upon B(a)P treatment whereas, phytol restored the level of antioxidant enzymes which were comparable to the vehicle control group. Moreover, administration of B(a)P induced apoptosis, as observed by the highest expression of Bax, caspase‐3, and caspase‐9 proteins in lung tissue of B(a)P alone treated animals. However, phytol treatment reduced the expression of Bax, caspase‐3, and caspase‐9 protein and maintained the constant expression of anti‐apoptotic protein Bcl‐2. These observations positively reveal that phytol regulates the antioxidant enzymes and thereby protects the cells against B(a)P induced carcinogenesis without showing any adverse toxic effect to the animals.