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Potential anti‐inflammatory and antioxidant effects of Citrus aurantium essential oil against carbon tetrachloride‐mediated hepatotoxicity: A biochemical, molecular and histopathological changes in adult rats

Ben Hsouna, Anis, Gargouri, Manel, Dhifi, Wissal, Ben Saad, Rania, Sayahi, Naima, Mnif, Wissem, Saibi, Walid
Environmental toxicology 2019 v.34 no.4 pp. 388-400
2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, Citrus aurantium, DNA, adults, anti-inflammatory activity, antioxidant activity, beta-carotene, biomarkers, bleaching, carbon tetrachloride, catalase, chemical composition, essential oils, free radicals, hepatotoxicity, histology, histopathology, limonene, linalool, liver, macrophages, messenger RNA, nitric oxide, oils, oxidative stress, rats, superoxide dismutase, transcription (genetics)
The present study aimed (1) to investigate the chemical composition as well as the anti‐inflammatory properties and in vitro antioxidant activity of Citrus aurantium peel essential oil (pEOCa) and (2) to evaluate its potential effect in vivo. The main results showed that the major components of pEOCa are Limonene and Linalool. Additionally, DPPH scavenging ability and β‐carotene bleaching inhibition tests confirmed the antioxidant capacity of pEOCa. Our oil reduced the production of NO by LPS‐stimulated RAW264,7 macrophages in a concentration‐dependent. This inhibition occurred at a transcriptional level. pEOCa in CCl₄ treated rats alleviated hepatotoxicity as monitored by the improvement of hepatic oxidative stress biomarkers levels plasma biochemical parameters, and DNA molecule aspect. Furthermore, the mRNA gene expression of Cu‐Zn SOD, CAT, and GPx increased under CCl₄+ pEOCa exposure to reach the same value to the control. Similarly, antioxidant activities of these three enzymes changed in accordance with the mRNA levels. These results were confirmed by the histological results. It seems obvious that the treatment with pEOCa prevented liver damage induced by CCl₄, thus preventing the harmful effects of free radicals.