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Effect of Ahasl1‐1 and Ahasl1‐4 alleles on herbicide resistance and its associated dominance in sunflower

Breccia, Gabriela, Gianotto, Laura, Altieri, Emiliano, Bulos, Mariano, Nestares, Graciela
Pest management science 2019 v.75 no.4 pp. 935-941
Helianthus annuus, acetolactate synthase, alleles, amino acid substitution, dose response, herbicide resistance, hybrids, imazapyr, loci, metsulfuron, point mutation, pyruvic acid
BACKGROUND: Acetohydroxyacid synthase large subunit 1 (Ahasl1) is a multiallelic locus involved in herbicide resistance in sunflower. Ahasl1‐1 and Ahasl1‐4 alleles harbor different point mutations that lead to different amino acid substitutions (Ala205Val and Trp574Leu, respectively). The objectives of this work were to evaluate the effect of these alleles at the enzymatic and whole‐plant levels, and to determine the dominance relationships for imazapyr and metsulfuron‐methyl herbicides. RESULTS: Resistant near‐isogenic lines showed significantly lower specific AHAS activity than susceptible near‐isoline. However, kinetic studies indicated that mutations did not change AHAS pyruvate affinity. Dose–response for six near‐isolines carrying different combinations of Ahasl1‐1 and Ahasl1‐4 alleles and two herbicides (imazapyr and metsulfuron‐methyl) were evaluated at whole‐plant and enzymatic levels. Ahasl1‐1 allele conferred moderate resistance to imazapyr and low resistance to metsulfuron‐methyl. Conversely, Ahasl1‐4 allele endowed high levels of resistance for both herbicides. Dominance of resistance at whole‐plant level showed a semi‐dominant behavior among the alleles for both herbicides. CONCLUSION: Ahasl1‐4 allele confers higher resistance levels than Ahasl1‐1 when evaluated with imazapyr and metsulfuron‐methyl. Dominance estimations suggested that both parental lines should carry a resistance trait when developing hybrids. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry