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The short-term effects of outdoor temperature on blood pressure among children and adolescents: finding from a large sample cross-sectional study in Suzhou, China
- Hu, Jia, Shen, Hui, Teng, Chen-gang, Han, Di, Chu, Guang-ping, Zhou, Yi-kai, Wang, Qi, Wang, Bo, Wu, Jing-zhi, Xiao, Qi, Liu, Fang, Yang, Hai-bing
- International journal of biometeorology 2019 v.63 no.3 pp. 381-391
- adolescents, adults, bioclimatology, blood pressure, body mass index, children, cold, confidence interval, cross-sectional studies, females, health promotion, hypertension, models, temperature, China
- Although several studies have demonstrated a short-term association between outdoor temperature and blood pressure (BP) among various adult groups, evidence among children and adolescents is lacking. One hundred ninety-four thousand one hundred four participants from 2016 Health Promotion Program for Children and Adolescents (HPPCA) were analyzed through generalized linear mixed-effects models to estimate the short-term effects of two outdoor temperature variables (average and minimum temperature) on participants’ BP. Decreasing outdoor temperature was associated with significant increases in systolic BP (SBP), diastolic BP (DBP), and prevalence of hypertension during lag 0 through lag 6. Additionally, daily minimum temperature showed a more apparent association with participants’ BP. The estimated increases (95% confidence interval) in SBP and DBP at lag 0 were 0.82 (0.72, 0.92) mmHg and 2.28 (2.20, 2.35) mmHg for a 1 °C decrease in daily minimum temperature, while those values were 0.11 (0.10, 0.12) mmHg and 0.25 (0.24, 0.26) mmHg for a 1 °C decrease in daily average temperature, respectively. The effects of temperature on BP were stronger among female, as well as those with young age and low body mass index. It demonstrated that short-term decreases in outdoor temperature were significantly associated with rises in BP among children and adolescents. This founding has some implications for clinical management and research of BP. Meanwhile, public health intervention should be designed to reduce the exposure to cold temperature for protecting children and adolescents’ BP.